Recent developments in forward osmosis processes ebooks. Jul 23, 2018 forward osmosis fo is a membrane technology that uses the osmotic pressure difference to treat two fluids at a time giving the opportunity for an energyefficient water and wastewater treatment. Mathematics manual for water and wastewater treatment plant. The concept of hydration bags was developed for military, recreational, and emergency relief situations when reliable drinking water is scarce or not available 63, 69. The journal of membrane science provides a focal point for academic and industrial chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and membranologists working on membrane systems. Fundamentals and applications presents the principles and implementation challenges of lowenergy desalination technology for producing potable and nonpotable water. Journal of membrane science performance evaluation of sucrose. Compared to thermal and pressuredriven membrane technologies, fo processes realize several bene. Childress, selection of inorganicbased draw solutions for forward osmosis applications, journal of membrane science, 364 2010 233241. Graphene oxide membranes goms are promising separation technologies. Forward osmosis fo is an emerging membrane separation process that continues to be. A commercial reality, proceedings ida world congress, perth, western australia, september 2011.
Mc cutcheon, method for designing membranes for osmotically driven membrane processes. Principles, applications, and recent developments journal of membrane science, may 2006. Modified models to predict flux behavior in forward osmosis in consideration. Osmosis, or as it is currently referred to as forward osmosis, has new applications in separation processes for wastewater treatment, food processing, and seawaterbrackish water desalination. Pressure retarded osmosis and forward osmosis membranes.
Pdf forward osmosis a brief introduction researchgate. The altered viscosities of the dope solutions with different concentrations of dhnt were measured and. Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressureretarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and. In forward osmosis fo, a saline feed solution passes through a semipermeable membrane toward a draw solution. Forward osmosis water purification improvements to fo membranes and process can significantly reduce capital and energy costs for water desalination plants what is the problem. Forward osmosis for wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Forward osmosis fo is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis ro, uses a semipermeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes. The polydopaminemodified halloysite nanotubes dhnt were synthesized for the improved dispersion in ca membrane matrix to obtain a cadhnt mixed matrix forward osmosis fo membranes. The driving force for this separation is an osmotic pressure gradient between a solution of high concentration, often referred to as a draw and a solution of lower concentration, referred to as the feed. To address these limitations, this study focuses on the development. Forward osmosis a brief introduction this paper outlines some of the aspects of forward osmosis process and its derivatives, with regard to key issues, concepts and some applications. A bilayer substrate including a removable backing layer may allow forward osmosis membranes with reduced supporting layer thickness to be processed on existing manufacturing lines. A combined forward osmosis and membrane distillation.
Forward osmosis fo is the reversal of the more common reverse osmosis ro to allow water to pass through a membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution. This chapter discusses solute and water transport through an asymmetric fo membrane, taking into account the mass transfer resistance of all transport layers, namely the membrane active and support layers, as well as the external fluid boundary layers. Presented at the american institute of chemical engineers annual meeting, membrane tutorial technical session, minneapolis, mn, october 1621, 2011 invited. Study shows forward osmosis desalination not energy efficient. Osmotically driven membrane processes odmps or forward osmosis fo.
For a given feed waterseawater tds, the recovery rate can be increased by increasing the. Issues discussed include membrane, configuration, draw solution, integration with posttreatment, and energy and economic evaluation. Pdf recent advancements in forward osmosis desalination. Forward osmosis is a natural process, which takes place all around us on an everyday basis.
Forward osmosis membranes reject organics, minerals and other solids similar to reverse osmosis ro but resist typical fouling problems. Journal of membrane and separation technology, 2012, 7993. Effects of transmembrane hydraulic pressure on performance of. The preparation of customized membranes is essential for the development of these technologies. The physicochemical properties of the pa membranes were confirmed by means of surface morphology, chemistry analysis, and surface charge characterization.
The altered viscosities of the dope solutions with different concentrations of. Pdf modern water is one of the few companies that have developed and deployed a forward osmosis desalination process on a commercial scale. A relatively low, yet stable forward osmosis flux was observed. Forward osmosis fo desalination is a process in which a high. The fo membranes were characterized by raman spectroscopy, porosity measurement, and contact angle study. Forward osmosis application in manufacturing industries. It is the process of two liquids seeking equilibrium that creates the power in forward osmosis. A combined forward osmosis and membrane distillation system. Pdf forward osmosis in wastewater treatment processes.
Membrane fouling and process performance of forward osmosis membranes on activated sludge. Forward osmosis has proven to be of interest for the treatment of complicated streams 16 and could be adapted to such environment where a saline stream is locally available 17. Fo is an emerging membrane technology platform that offers a low cost alternative to reverse osmosis ro as a means of recapturing wastewater for direct potable reuse. Study on the transport mechanism of a freestanding. Jan 10, 2018 the polydopaminemodified halloysite nanotubes dhnt were synthesized for the improved dispersion in ca membrane matrix to obtain a cadhnt mixed matrix forward osmosis fo membranes. Conducted by massachusetts institute of technology researchers and published in the journal of membrane science, the study found that contrary to popular support, forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient, compared to reverse osmosis, according to an announcement from the institute. The application of polyethyleneimine draw solution in a. Ultrathin supportfree membrane with high water flux for. This project aims to evaluate the promise of forward osmosis fo as a technology to enable direct potable reuse of water. Chapter 6 nanoparticles as draw solution for forward osmosis processes.
Enabling potable reuse of wastewater using forward osmosis. Study on the transport mechanism of a freestanding graphene. Forward osmosis fo offers the opportunity to engineer new applications based on the ubiquitous osmotic process utilized by every living organism. Forward osmosis is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis, uses a semipermeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes. To address these limitations, this study focuses on the development of. Recent developments in forward osmosis processes provides an overview of applications, advantages, challenges, costs and current knowledge gaps. Forward osmosis fo represents a new promising membrane technology for liquid separation driven by the osmotic pressure of aqueous solution.
The system was operated at different draw solution concentrations, leading to varying salinity conditions. Desalination is an interdisciplinary journal publishing high quality papers on desalination materials, processes and related technologies. Chemical and physical aspects of organic fouling of forward osmosis membranes. Forward osmosis for source water purificationhydration bags the use of fo for water purification was briefly introduced in section 4. In the past four decades, membrane development has occurred based on the demand in pressure driven processes. Factors affecting the performances of forward osmosis. Pdf forward osmosis fo is one of the evolving membrane technologies in desalination. In a recent study published in the journal of membrane science, mit professor john lienhard and postdoc ronan mcgovern, both of the department of mechanical engineering, reported that, contrary to popular support, forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient, compared to reverse osmosis.
Water free fulltext nutrients enrichment and process. Forward osmosis fo is an emerging low energy desalination technology with several merits over the other. An ammoniacarbon dioxide draw solution was used for the testing. Model of forward osmosis through compositeasymmetric membranes. Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration forward osmosis for. Chemical engineering laboratory cheg 47 osmotic separations. Forward osmosis, direct osmosis or just osmosis is the transport of a solvent normally water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of lower osmotic potential to a region of higher osmotic potential. In reverse osmosis ro, we found that the salt rejection is low compared to that in commercially available ro membranes. Guide to forward osmosis membranes forwardosmosistech. Forward osmosis membranes include an active layer and a thin support layer. Forward osmosis fo is an emerging membrane technology with a range of possible water treatment applications desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery.
This paper provides the stateoftheart of the physical principles and applications of forward osmosis as well as their strengths and limitations. Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressureretarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and implantable osmotic pumps for controlled drug release. The driving force for this separation is an osmotic pressure gradient, such that a draw solution of high concentration relative to that of the feed solution, is used to induce a net flow of water through the membrane into the draw. During this process the solute or solutes are rejected by the membrane, in the same way as a reverse osmosis membrane. Forward osmosis fo is an osmotic process that uses a semipermeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved solutes. Forward osmosis fo is a membrane technology that uses the osmotic pressure difference to treat two fluids at a time giving the opportunity for an energyefficient water and wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis fo is an osmotic process that uses semipermeable membrane to achieve separation. This article focuses on the recent developments of forward osmosis fo for desalination and the challenges it faced. Forward osmosis in wastewater treatment processes article pdf available in acta chimica slovenica 641. Osmosis, or as it is currently referred to as forward osmosis, has new applications in. Pdf forward osmosis fo over the past five years has generally. Solute and water transport in forward osmosis using.
Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration fouling chuyang y. Fo is also known as engineered osmosis eo, manipulated osmosis mo and simply osmosis. Forward osmosis journal of membrane and separation technology, 2012 vol. Effects of support inhomogeneity and solution nonideality arnout dhaese, edxon e. Schematic diagram of the forward osmosis benchscale laboratory system for sucrose concentration. Commercial desalination technologies used to desalinate seawater and inland brackish waters including electro. Cath t, childress a, and elimelech m forward osmosis. Pharmaceutical concentration using organic solvent forward. Unpressurized fo can desalinate brackish water and seawater using less energy and at potentially lower costs than reverse osmosis ro.
Final report enabling potable reuse of wastewater using. Reverse osmosis vs forward osmosis which is better for. Forward osmosis with a novel thinfilm inorganic membrane. A novel wastewater treatment system was investigated using forward osmosis membranes to. Use of switchable solvents as forward osmosis draw solutes. Influence of concentrative and dilutive internal concentration polarization on flux behavior in forward osmosis. Organic polymeric fo membranes are subject to severe internal concentration polarization due to asymmetric membrane structure, and low stability due to inherent chemical composition. Jul 23, 2014 in a recent study published in the journal of membrane science, mit professor john lienhard and postdoc ronan mcgovern, both of the department of mechanical engineering, reported that, contrary to popular support, forward osmosis desalination of seawater is significantly less energy efficient, compared to reverse osmosis. The organic solvent forward osmosis osfo process can simultaneously concentrate the active pharmaceutical ingredients apis and recover the. The reactor was used to treat and simultaneously concentrate nutrients from wastewater. Forward osmosis fo desalination is a process in which a high osmotic pressure draw solution, on the permeate side of a semi permeability membrane, serves to draw water from an aqueous. Forward osmosis applied to desalination and evaporative.
Osmotic pressure gradient is the main mechanism by which fresh water transports across the membrane in the fo process. In this work, an ultrathin polyamide pa membrane was fabricated via in situ removing polysulfone psf substrate from the psfpa forward osmosis membrane for the first time. The driving force for this separation is an osmotic pressure gradient, such that a draw solution of high concentration, is used to induce a net flow of water through the membrane into the draw solution, thus effectively separating the feed water from its solutes. Recent developments and future challenges of forward osmosis. Thanks to its low operating pressure and high rejection, fo exhibits low fouling propensity while allowing the production of high water permeate quality and. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of solution chemistry of branched polyethyleneimine pei draw solute and to evaluate the pei draw solute in a combined forward osmosis fonanofiltration nf system. The use of forward osmosis fo for water purification purposes has gained extensive attention in recent years. The effects of reverse salt diffusion through a forward osmosis membrane were studied in a microfiltration osmotic membrane bioreactor. Forward osmosis enables plants to transport water from their root systems to their leaves and it provides the primary means of transporting water in and out of cells across most organisms in nature.194 1223 170 572 634 945 1285 493 334 826 693 1213 1249 1272 1514 610 710 7 368 1365 69 1103 673 1443 58 1400 412 950 686 993 249 208 1385 71 341 1198 1028 568 67 158 1305 560 208 397 406 207 595 680 924 1383